RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY, AN IMPORTANT PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM IN PAKISTAN: A REVIEW
Keywords:ROP, LMICs, Pakistan, prevention, literature review
Introduction: Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is the significant cause of blindness in children globally. Although the incidence of ROP is greater in premature infants worldwide, statistics show that it is more common in low-middle-income countries. Multiple causes and complications of ROP in low middle-income countries have been reported therefore the purpose of this literature review was to review the findings from literature about the burden, causes, outcomes, and important preventive measures of ROP for low middle-income countries, especially in Pakistan. Methods: A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted from published articles. Research studies were selected that included risk factors of ROP, screening, and diagnosis of ROP, treatment of ROP, and prevention of ROP.Results The cause of the high rate of ROP in Low-middle income countries (LMICs) includes a high rate of preterm babies, lack of awareness regarding ROP, financial instability, and insufficient treatment and screening programs at the newborn units. ROP is found to be the significant cause of preventable blindness in South Asia. There are three different levels of prevention aimed at reducing the burden of ROP in LMICs. Primary prevention aims at reduction in preterm births, secondary prevention aims at early diagnosis of the disease and tertiary prevention aims at reducing deterioration of conditions due to disease. Conclusion: The emphasis on preventive measures especially primary and secondary level prevention can help in decreasing the burden of ROP. This requires a multidisciplinary approach at all levels including at the level of policymaking, program implementation, health care providers, and community level.
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Copyright (c) 2021 Tabish Ali Shalwani , Kubra Rind , Bakhtawar Khowaja
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